Monthly Archives: December 2018

Herbal Drugs and Their Spasmodic Effects

The typically synthesized derivatives, to mention a few, such as isoflavones, ketamine benzaldehyde or benzyl cinnamate thalidomide mebeverine hydrochloride verapamil and midazolam, are currently used in pharmaceutical drug industry as antispasmodic and vasodilators. However, a large number of herbal remedies of plant isolates proved just as effective and useful.

Herbal drugs in general, are often used in urinary tract diseases such as inflammation of the lower urinary tract, kidney and bladder, and also benign prostata hyperplasia. They usually show mild aquaretic / diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antispasmodic actions. Aniba canelilla (Mez) is a medicinal plant used in the Amazon folkas therapeutic , antispasmodic, anti-diuretic, carminative, tonic agent. It is used also as a stimulant of the digestive and central nervous system; the plant essential oil has analgesic activity. The hydroalcoholic extracts of Achillea millefolium L. (AM) and Artemisia vulgaris L. (AV), both belonging to the Asteraceae family, confirm their folk use as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic agents.

The antispasmodic effects of methyleugenol from the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus is reported to possess bitter, stimulant, tonic, antispasmodic and anthelmintic properties. Artemisia scoparia Waldst and kit (Compositae) is a source of immense medicinal and pharmaceutical importance, such as Scoparone, Rutin and Esculetin which are effective as immunosuppressants, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, hypotensive, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory agents.

St John’s Wart (Hypericum perforatum) is famous for its many medicinal uses. The crude extract of aerial parts and its fractions were studied in vitro for its possible spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities. The composites of are sold as pills in over-the-counter herbal remedies in pharmacies.

Of the several hallucinogenic plant constiuents; papavrine, morphine and opium were shown to have sedative and antispasmodic effects, besides their addictive nature and other deleterious effects when often misused.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is an ancient, highly significant and popular plant species with proven pharmaceutical value especially, against human chronic diseases in modern medicine. Among the opium alkaloids, morphine is a strong analgesic, while codeine is anti-tussive and papaverine antispasmodic. Besides being a potent pain killer, morphine, the largest component of opium, exhibits a combination of depression and stimulation in the central nervous system. India is a unique country where opium poppy is legitimately cultivated for gum latex as per WHO guidelines.

Hyoscine, another hallucinogenic and poisonous plant constituents, experience wide use in phamacetical drug industry. Hyoscine butylbromide (tradenames: Buscopan/Buscapina) is an antispasmodic drug for the treatment of abdominal pain associated with gastrointestinal cramping. As a hyoscine derivative, it competitively inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract…

The natural and often common -day used plant materials as spices and flavouring in food products are cardamom, pepper ginger and mint. These were found to have some spasmodic effects as well.As an example the “gastrointestinal tea” contains natural cardamom (seed), pomegranate (grains), long red pepper (foeti), physocarpous siberian (roots), berry apple (foeti), red bartsia (herb) of specified proportions have anti-inflammatory action; enzyme normalization of gastrointestinal tract; improvement of gastric juice enzymatic activity; antispasmodic and analgesic action…

Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale) is a well known herb for its culinary and wide range of medicinal uses, and is considered an essential component of the kitchen pharmacy. More commonly, ginger has been traditionally used in disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, as a stomachic, laxative, sialog gue, gastric emptying enhancer, appetizer, antiemetic, antidyspepsic, antispasmodic, and antiulcer agent with sufficient scientific support. Similarly, ginger has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, anti- migraine, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, diuretic, and hypocholes

The use of mint species in traditional and conventional medicine is mostly due to the presence of two classes of secondary monoterpenoids in essential oils and different structural types of phenolic compounds. Essential oils are known to act as antimicrobial, antispasmodic, carminative, and antiviral agents. In addition, the essential oils of several mint species have been recently qualified as natural antioxidants.

Psidium guajava L has an edible fruit when ripe and has a pleasant aroma. Guava has been a widely used folkloric medicine in China, India, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Tropical America. Being rich in polyphenolics and flavonoids, it exhibits many therapeutic uses including amebicide, analgesic, vermifuge, antimalarial, antibacterial, colic-relief, antispasmodic, astringent, antiulcerous, gastrototonic cough suppressant, hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, diarrheal, some psychic diseases and hyperglycaemia.

Other plant parts that can mentioned here for their spasmodic effects are: Tribulus terrestris Linn; different parts of which are highly prized remedy amongst the people of India. Since ancient periods, the fruit is used as demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic and aphrodisiac. The fruits have been identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characters, cell contents, the behavior of powdered drug with different reagents and preliminary phytochemical analysis.

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L..) is traditionally used against inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints, hepato-biliary disorders, as an appetite enhancing drug, against skin inflammations and for wound healing, due to its antiphlogistic, choleretic and spasmolytic properties. The main pharmacologically active principles were shown to be the essential oil (antimicrobial), proazulenes and other sesquiterpene lactones (antiphlogistic), dicaffeoylquinic acids (choleretic) and flavonoids (antispasmodic).

‘Tian-ma’ (Gastrodia elata Blume) is an effective analgesic and antispasmodic agent and there are some counterfeits in the Chinese traditional medicine

Drugs and Tests for Less

Would you buy groceries without knowing their prices? I suspect not. You probably compare the costs of different boxes of cereal in order to get the best deal. But when it comes to medical care, do you even ask for the prices involved?

While it’s true that good health is priceless, and cutting corners on health care is risky, there is still much you can do in order to obtain the same good value in medical care that you insist upon in other areas of your life.

If you lack a prescription plan that pays for your medications, it’s high time you discussed the cost of drugs with your doctor. Your doctor’s number-one choice in medication for your medical condition might be expensive. There are usually reasonable alternatives that cost less. You should take advantage of your doctor’s expertise in estimating trade-offs involved with each of your options.

Apart from prices, your doctor is already balancing a number of important factors in making a drug recommendation. First, of course, the drug needs to be medically effective–otherwise, why bother? The doctor also takes into consideration what other medications you are taking, what other illnesses you have, your age, your gender, the drug’s side-effect spectrum, and also its convenience aspects, like how many times per day it has to be taken and whether or not blood-tests are required to monitor it. A drug that might score high on effectiveness and side-effects might still be inconvenient. An alterative might be both convenient and effective, but pose a higher risk of side-effects.

So the truth of the matter is that your doctor is already sorting through all sorts of trade-offs in choosing a medication to prescribe. Factoring in the prices of alternative drugs just builds on the comparing-apples-to-oranges process you are paying your doctor to do for you in the first place. But if the doctor doesn’t know that you lack a prescription plan, he or she might not include the cost of drugs in these reckonings and you might be stuck with a prescription that wrecks your budget.

The next step in obtaining maximum value for your investment in medication is to shop it around. Let your fingers do the walking by phoning several pharmacies for a price-check. I even write out a script for my shy patients who get nervous when they talk to medical personnel. It goes something like this: “Hi, I’d like to do a price-check on my prescription medication. How much would it cost to buy thirty furosemide 20 milligram (or whatever) pills? Thank you very much. Have a great day!”

In repeating this process with different pharmacies you will discover there can be quite a spread among even nearby drugstores. Suppose that your ten minutes on the phone saves you $20 on your prescription. Then you have just earned money at a rate of $120 per hour each month for your efforts. It is time well spent.

Cost-consciousness is also valuable when it comes to medical tests. If the cost of a medical test is prohibitive (as is often the case) and you don’t have the luxury of letting someone else pay for it, then encourage your doctor to talk through your alternatives with you. Does the same test cost less at one facility than at another? How important is the test? What could go wrong if you skip it, delay it or substitute a less expensive test? What are the chances of a serious repercussion?

Unfortunately, your doctor usually has less latitude when cost-optimizing your medical tests, but what could it hurt to ask? You might be glad you did.